Elevator Product Segment Market Features/ 2017-04-06 04:02
An elevator (or lift in the Commonwealth excluding Canada) is a type of vertical transport equipment that efficiently moves people or goods between floors (levels, decks) of a building, vessel or other structures. Elevators are generally powered by electric motors that either drive traction cables or counterweight systems like a hoist, or pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack.
There are three types of convoying methods in buildings, Elevators & Escalators & Ramps, and they have different dimensions and uses according to building type & number of users in it.
Elevator Types: According to hoist mechanism; According to building height; According to building type; According to elevator Location; According to Special uses;
According to hoist mechanism: Elevators will be classified according to hoist mechanism to 4 main types as follows: Hydraulic Elevators, Traction Elevators, Climbing elevator, Pneumatic Elevators.
Hydraulic elevators are supported by a piston at the bottom of the elevator that pushes the elevator up. They are used for low-rise applications of 2-8 stories and travel at a maximum speed of 200 feet per minute. The machine room for hydraulic elevators is located at the lowest level adjacent to the elevator shaft. Hydraulic elevators have many two main types as follows:
Holed (Conventional) Hydraulic Elevators
They have a sheave that extends below the floor of the elevator pit, which accepts the retracting piston as the elevator descends. Some configurations have a telescoping piston that collapses and requires a shallower hole below the pit. Max travel distance is approximately 60 feet. 1英尺≈0.305米
Hole-less Hydraulic Elevators
They have a piston on either side of the cab. It can be divided to 3 different types as follows:
Telescopic Hydraulic Elevators:
In this configuration, the telescoping pistons are fixed at the base of the pit and do not require a sheave or hole below the pit and has 2 or 3 pieces of telescoping pistons. Telescoping pistons allow up to 50 feet of travel distance.
Non-telescoping (single stage) Hydraulic Elevators:
It has one piston and only allows about 20 feet of travel distance.
Roped Hydraulic Elevators .
They use a combination of ropes and a piston to move the elevator. Maximum travel distance is about 60 feet. Traction Elevators (Pull Elevators)
Traction elevators are lifted by ropes, which pass over a wheel attached to an electric motor above the elevator shaft. They are used for mid and high-rise applications and have much higher travel speeds than hydraulic elevators. A counter weight makes the elevators more efficient. Traction elevators have 3 main types as follows:
They have a gearbox that is attached to the motor, which drives the wheel that moves the ropes. Geared traction elevators are capable of travel speeds up to 500 feet per minute. Gearless Traction Elevators:
They have the wheel attached directly to the motor. Gear-less traction elevators are capable of speeds up to 2000 feet per minute. Machine-Room-Less Elevators:
They are typically traction elevators that do not have a dedicated machine room above the elevator shaft. The machine sits in the override space and the controls sit above the ceiling adjacent to the elevator shaft. Machine-room-less elevators are becoming more common; however, many maintenance departments do not like them due to the hassle of working on a ladder as opposed to within a room.
They hold their own power device on them, mostly electric or combustion engine. Climbing elevators are often used in work and construction areas.
Pneumatic elevators are raised and lowered by controlling air pressure in a chamber in which the elevator sits. By simple principles of physics; the difference in air pressure above and beneath the vacuum elevator cab literally transports cab by air. It is the vacuum pumps or turbines that pull cab up to the next Floor and the slow release of air pressure that floats cab down. They are especially ideal for existing homes due to their compact design because excavating a pit and hoist way is not required.
According to building type: Elevators will be classified according to building type to 6 main types as follows: Hospital Elevators, Residential /Domestic Elevators, Agricultural Elevators, Industrial Elevators, Commercial Elevators, Parking buildings Elevators.
Hospital Bed Elevators
Hospital bed elevators generally transport patients who are not well enough to sit up even in a wheelchair. One of the features of bed elevators should be its ability to transport the patient has smoothly as possible with minimal amount of bumping and jostling. Many contemporary bed elevators are manufactured to consume extremely low amounts of power and to be durable with a number of safety features built-in. Hospital bed elevators generally draw very little power so that should there be a power outage they are still operational off the hospital's backup power supply. Most often there will be a rear and a front entry to the elevator cabin.
Hospital Stretcher Lift
They usually are smaller than bed elevators. This particular type of elevator is usually hydraulic or traction based depending on the location of the machine room. They are specifically manufactured to be low-noise bed elevators that smoothly transport patients, doctors, nurses and hospital staff between floors, allowing them the utmost in comfort. Because hospital bed elevators are only used for transporting patients and hospital staff they arrived at their location quite quickly, eliminating lengthy waits. Many of these bed elevators are key-operated so as to prohibit use by the general public.
Residential /Domestic Elevators
They are usually just on a much smaller scale than industrial or commercial elevators.
Domestic Elevators or home elevator
Domestic elevators which are intended to move passengers up and down stairs in a multilevel residence are quite similar to those used in large public buildings. They can be built either inside the home or outside the home and can be pneumatic vacuum, electric, hydraulic or cable elevators. Most often domestic elevators designed for carrying passengers in a residential setting only carry perhaps two to four people safely and comfortably.
Stairway elevators are generally installed in homes where someone in the family has problems with mobility. This type of domestic elevators simply runs on a rail up and down and existing staircase. They can run either in a straight line or around a curved stairway. Stairway elevators can be constructed both inside and outside the home.
Vertical Wheelchair Elevators
Interior vertical wheelchair elevators can easily be installed when space is limited. They can be constructed in such a way as to allow both front and rear entry and the platform is generally 4.5 feet by 5 feet, unless a custom size is called for. Vertical elevators are called for when the staircase winds around several levels.
Wheelchair Elevators on an Incline
Wheelchair elevators on an incline are generally installed when the staircase simply goes up one level or perhaps two. If there are several winds in the staircase, wheelchair elevators on an incline would not be well suited. Most often this type of elevator is called for when there is not adequate space to facilitate a more spacious vertical wheelchair elevator.
They are small freight elevators intended to carry objects rather than people, whenever groceries or laundry need to be sent up and down the stairs without making unnecessary trips that can quickly tire people, people can simply place what needs to be transported in the dumbwaiter and press the button to send it up or down stairs. Dumbwaiters are most often built into or adjacent to a wall.
A simple dumbwaiter is a movable frame in a shaft, dropped by a rope on a pulley, guided by rails; most dumbwaiters have a shaft, car, and capacity smaller than those of passenger elevators, usually 100 to 1000 lbs .